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2018-07-15

Increased fluctuations in the path of the North Atlantic jet stream since the 1960s coincide with more extreme weather events in Europe such as heat waves

Having a 290-year record of the position of the jet stream let Trouet and her colleagues determine that swings between northern and southern positions of the jet became more frequent in the second half of the 20th century

When the North Atlantic jet is in the extreme northern position, the British Isles and western Europe have a summer heat wave while southeastern Europe has heavy rains and flooding


futurity.org January 16th, 2018


The big question is “why does the jet stream shift?”

The findings suggest the latitude of the Atlantic jet stream in summer is influenced by several factors, including sea surface temperatures, solar variability, and the extent of Arctic sea-ice. 

https://www.futurity.org/jet-stream-summer-weather-1232862-2/





The ECB defines price stability as inflation “below, but close to, 2% over the medium term.”

 
That is a lower inflation rate than even the Bundesbank achieved during its celebrated pre-euro history, and it is a tighter target than virtually all other central banks pursue. 


For some, too much of a good thing is apparently wonderful.


Stefan Gerlach Project Syndicate 12 July 2018


Stefan Gerlach is Chief Economist at EFG Bank in Zurich and Former Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Ireland. He has also served as Executive Director and Chief Economist of the Hong Kong Monetary Authority and as Secretary to the Committee on the Global Financial System at the BIS.


2018-07-13

Bears sound clever; bulls make money.

The pessimists believe that markets drive the economy. In their view, near-zero interest rates and quantitative easing, or QE, pushed investors out of government bonds and into risky assets.  

Now that such policies are reversing, stocks and corporate bonds are vulnerable—and so is the economy. 

The optimists, by contrast, believe that markets are led by the economy. Only when it shows weakness, and profits slump, is it time to get out.


There is no rational reason to buy a geriatric bull market that has 3-5% upside and 40-50% downside.

But we have finally reached the point where investor risk/reward metrics have absolutely nothing to do with the daily bumps and grinds of the stock averages.

That is to say, the chart monkeys now own the casino lock, stock and barrel. The alternating red and green flickers on the tickers discount nothing real because everything which is real points to crunch time ahead.

David Stockman 12 July  2018


2018-07-10

monetary union without banking union will not work. Eichengreen

 
Euro Area needs vigorous, coordinated regulation of its banking and financial systems by a single supervisor


— monetary union without banking union will not work.


Barry Eichengreen sciencedirect 19 June 2018



2018-07-09

The last days of a prime minister are dreadful

Edwina Currie Telegraph 9 July 2018


The Prime Minister overplayed her hand disastrously by trying to bounce the Cabinet and the Parliamentary party into support for a settlement that violates the electoral manifesto, the Lancaster House speech, the verdict of the referendum, and the minimum conditions of sovereign self-government.  

Ambrose 9 July 2018


The bloody history of civil war in the Tory party and The 1990 Tory coup against Margaret Thatcher

Englund blog 27 February 2016



America’s foreign trade deficits on goods transactions are getting worse.


Trade deficits with the EU and China, growing at respective annual rates of 15 percent and 10 percent

Michael Ivanovitch CNBC 9 July 2018

France’s market watchdog is bracing for a surge in global bond yields and a Wall Street crash


as soon as this year, fearing that contagion will spread to Europe and snuff out the fragile recovery.

“The world has never been so indebted – even more than before the 2007 crisis – and this debt has never been so risky,” said the Autorité des Marchés Financiers (AMF) in its annual report.



Italy’s debts to European Central Bank near €500bn

 
Germany’s Target 2 surplus is on track to reach €1tn.

FT 9 July 2018


2018-07-06

DN om folkpartiet: Hur länge är folkets nej till eurosamarbetet giltigt?


Och vad ska EU egentligen ägna sig åt? 

Att skrota den svenska kronan nu kan ju inte vara en valvinnare.

Hungern efter den federalistiska agenda som Jan Björklund presenterade i Almedalen, och ”Mer EU!”, är dessvärre dämpad.





Spain’s Bankia, the country’s fourth-largest bank

It’s been a headache for Spanish leaders since it required a rescue in 2012 to avert a collapse 

that could have brought down the nation’s entire financial system. 


Bloomberg 6 July 2018


BIS frets about an inexorable increase in global debt level Tett

217 per cent of gross domestic product, up from 179 per cent a decade ago. This partly reflects government borrowing. 

However, corporate leverage has also exploded, particularly among western high-risk borrowers and emerging markets companies, most notably in China.




Extreme heat sets records across the northern hemisphere

These meteorological events are linked by the behaviour of the jet stream, the band of fast winds blowing west to east in the upper atmosphere.

Movements in the wavy path that the jet stream follows around the globe play a key role in determining weather conditions.

FT 5 July 2018


Väderkartan är konstig (inte som den var förr)






2018-07-01

Europe’s establishment is luxuriating in two recent announcements Varoufakis

Europe’s establishment is luxuriating in two recent announcements that would have been momentous even if they were only partly accurate: 

The end of Greece’s debt crisis, and a Franco-German accord to redesign the eurozone. 

Unfortunately, both reports offer fresh proof of the European Union establishment’s remarkable talent for never missing an opportunity to miss an opportunity.

Yanis Varoufakis Project Syndicate 28 June 2018 

2018-06-29

Valet 1976 präglades av kärnkraft och löntagarfonder, av socialism mot frihet

Den som inte visste var den lilla byn Sibbhult låg fick den rejält placerad på kartan av Gösta Bohman.

Där, i nordöstra Skåne, hade arbetarekommunen motionerat om avsikten att de svenska produktionsmedlen ”alltmer övergår till samhället och de anställda”. 

Den socialdemokratiska partikongressen hade antagit motionen. 

Var det alltså, undrade Bohman försmädligt ofta, Olof Palmes vilja att avskaffa marknadsekonomin?


Erik Helmerson DN 27 juni 2018


2018-06-28

Euron och Schengen var välbetänkt

Varför har den Europeiska Unionen infört Euron och Schengen fastän det stod klart för de flesta att detta var högriskprojekt ?

Jo, därför att de romantiska utopisterna vill skapa en riktig Union, som USA.

En stat med Parlament, Domstol, en yttre men ingen inre gräns, ett EU-pass och medborgarskap samt naturligtvis en valuta. Frimärkena kommer väl senare, liksom försvaret som dock redan är under uppbyggnad.

Och, givetvis, en flagga.

If you want to understand what is happening to the European Union’s constitution, the EU flag is a good place to start. 

European leaders will agree to delete references to the flag in the constitution. Everybody knows the flags will keep flying. 


The words in the constitution will change. But the substance will remain the same.


Gideon Rachman, Financial Times June 12 2007


The constitution is a symbol. After decades in which the EU has gradually accrued more powers – without going out of its way to draw attention to the fact – the creation of a real constitution was a coming-out party for those who believe in a European political union. 

Rather than disguising the true aim of the “project”, European federalists were proudly proclaiming it – and seeking popular endorsement. 

So the rejection of the constitution was a crushing blow.

The federalist response – pushed by the Germans who will be in the chair at next week’s meeting – is to repackage the constitution and to try to push it through regardless. 

The name constitution will be dropped. Instead, the document will be called a treaty and will be stripped of the symbols of statehood – like the flag and the EU anthem. 

But very little of the legal substance will change.

The aim is to make the constitution seem dull and technical – and so to allow governments to push it through parliaments without any unpredictable referendums. 







2018-06-27

Germany is the largest guarantor of the OMT

Germany is the largest guarantor of the European Central Bank’s credit default insurance, known as the OMT, 

and provides by far the largest stock of “target” overdraft credit to other European countries, currently €956bn.

Hans-Werner Sinn FT 27 June 2018

ETFs equity-fund assets that are passively managed


The proportion of U.S. equity-fund assets that are passively managed has nearly doubled in that time to nearly 40 percent.

Satyajit Das Bloomberg 27 June 2018

Germany gave up its deutschmark to forge a monetary union and satisfy French and British fears over its post-reunification muscle

Germany even gave up its fabled deutschmark, a totem of hard-earned postwar affluence, to forge a monetary union and satisfy French and British fears over its post-reunification muscle.


Bloomberg 27 June 2018




In Strasbourg on Dec. 9, 1989, after the Berlin Wall fell, Germany agreed to monetary union in order to get President Mitterand to agree to German reunification


WSJ 23 Sept 2011

Should stresses emerge, market liquidity will evaporate again

 
the insidious illusion of permanent liquidity has not gone away. 

insidious = proceeding in a gradual, subtle way, but with very harmful effects.



If central banks are not the main cause of lower interest rates

For one, it means that rates will probably remain low even after the ECB finishes its asset purchases.

Marc Chandler FT 27 June 2018


Banks - More than $425bn

More than $425bn, or 12 per cent, has been knocked off the value of S&P 500 financial shares since they set a post-crisis record in January. 

FT 27 June 2018


Banks at IntCom

2018-06-26

Banks may be disguising their borrowings BIS

Banks may be disguising their borrowings in a way similar to that used by Lehman Brothers Holdings Inc., with debt ratios falling within limits imposed by regulators just four times a year.

Lenders use repurchase agreements -- known as repos -- to massage down their assets as reporting dates approach, typically as quarters end, the Bank for International Settlements said in its Annual Economic Report.

Bloomberg 24 June 2018

2018-06-24

Until Greece can successfully sell a multi-billion euro bond to international investors

Until Greece can successfully sell a multi-billion euro bond to international investors, it can’t truly be said to be on a sustainable path.  

An offering could come as soon as July, but yields need to fall further and investors need to turn up in size. Neither is certain.

For now, the European Union, the International Monetary Fund and European Central Bank have chosen to extend and pretend.

Bloomberg 22 June 2018

Any reversal in our fortunes could be “quick and sharp”, says the Bank for International Settlements

World debt ratios have spiralled to record levels during the era of super-easy money and markets are showing tell-tale signs of late-cycle excess, leaving the international financial system acutely vulnerable to a jump in borrowing costs. 

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, Telegraph 24 June 2018

Any reversal in our fortunes could be “quick and sharp”, says the Bank for International Settlements, the venerable global watchdog based in Switzerland and the scourge of dissolute practice.

Full text




2018-06-22

Sandberg, Ahlmark och Olof Lagercrantz

Nils-Eric Sandberg om Per Ahlmark
SvD 21 juni 2018

"Det kommunistiska partiet har skapat ofantligt mycket som är värdefullt och framtidsdugligt. 
Det har bland annat – och det är en stor sak – befriat det ryska folket från påträngande materiell nöd, medan samtidigt miljoner svälter i Förenta Staterna" 

Olof Lagercrantz om Sovjetunionens kommunistiska parti. Dagens Nyheter, 11/7 1968.

Läs mer här


Tänk om dom hade fått igenom sina förslag!

“The Greek crisis ends here tonight in Luxembourg.”


Pierre Moscovici, the EU’s economy commissioner, said after the meeting. 

The earliest repayment deadlines shift from 2023 to 2033.

FT 22 June 2018


Greece - Extend and Pretend, again



2018-06-21

Why banks and regulators missed the risks in the credit system before 2008

In coming months, on the 10th anniversary of the last great financial crisis, there will be a new round of debate about why banks and regulators missed the risks in the credit system before 2008.

It’s not the big, obviously radical decisions that create disasters in finance but subtle periods of mission creep, when slightly deviant behaviour is quietly tolerated.

Gillian Tett FT 20 June 2018

Financial crisis



Greece - Extend and Pretend, again

An agreement was close that would leave Greece with minimal repayments until after 2030 on the €228bn it owes to the rest of the eurozone. 

FT 21 June 2018


“extend and pretend”
Europe's Unserious Plan for Greece
The latest deal on debt won’t work, and everybody knows it.




2018-06-20

Att vända utvecklingen till mer subsidiaritet, färre åtaganden och större fokus på just den inre marknaden är inte en helt enkel uppgift.

Det finns goda skäl att vara kritisk till hur det europeiska samarbetet har utvecklats under de senaste åren. 

Förslaget på nästa långtidsbudget med nya utgiftsökningar och egen beskattningsrätt för unionen är ett. 

Kommissionens generella ovilja att lyssna på den kritik om centralisering och överstatlighet som åtminstone delvis föranledde det brittiska utträdet, är ett annat.

Catarina Kärkkäinen Ordförande Fria Moderata Studentförbundet SvD 20 juni 2018

Kommentar RE: Lycka till Catarina i arbetet för att vända utvecklingen inom EU till mer subsidiaritet och färre åtaganden, mer som EEC än som EU och ett nytt Romarrike. 

Vi tror på Europa

Federalism

Prolonged recessions are a feature /of EMU/, not a bug.

Part of the adjustment mechanism built into the currency union is the pro-cyclical impact of monetary policy: 

real interest rates are higher in countries forced through internal devaluations.
The mechanism of adjustment in the eurozone is therefore essentially that of the 19th-century gold standard. 

Prolonged recessions are a feature, not a bug.

The euro has been a failure. The single currency has failed to deliver economic stability or a greater sense of a European identity. Martin Wolf

 It has become a source of discord.

The story of Italy is revealing and, given its size, of crucial importance.

All of this was predicted. 

In his excellent EuroTragedy, Princeton University’s Ashoka Mody cites a critique of the 1970 Werner Committee report, the first blueprint for a monetary union, by Nicholas Kaldor, a British economist of Hungarian origin.

Kaldor argued there would need to be fiscal transfers. That would require a political union. 

But the conflicts created by the currency union would fester, making moves towards such a union more difficult. So it has proved.

Martin Wolf FT 19 June 2018

2018-06-19

Germany increased its competitiveness by keeping wage growth muted

Germany increased its competitiveness by keeping wage growth muted in the worst years of the global financial crisis. 

It managed to push unemployment to record lows, but this came largely through the creation of low-paying, low-skill jobs, resulting in a decline in labor productivity


Deutsche Welle 19 june 2018

Former U.S. Treasury Secretary Lawrence Summers:

“The consequences of another economic downturn dwarf and massively exceed any adverse consequences associated with inflation pushing a bit above 2 percent,” 

Summers said at a European Central Bank conference in Sintra, Portugal.


Bloomberg 18 June 2018

Riktiga karlar är inte rädda för lite inflation



2018-06-18

February’s market shock was just the canary in the coal mine


Low volatility leads investors and traders to adopt strategies that make the financial system more fragile and vulnerable to crisis.


John Plender FT 18 June 2018

ECB has allowed investors to overlook the fragilities in the public finances of several member states and the flaws in the monetary union

For three years, the ECB has allowed investors to overlook the fragilities in the public finances of several member states and the flaws in the monetary union.

Governments must now learn to do without the central bank’s support.

Bloomberg Editorial 15 June 2018

Italian banks have pulled assets out of the central bank


and deposited them across the Eurosystem's banking institutions.


Target2 liabilities now stand at €465bn


Jamie Powell ftalphaville 12 June 2018

The euro may be approaching another crisis. Stiglitz


Italy, the eurozone’s third largest economy, has chosen what can at best be described as a Euroskeptic government.


This should surprise no one. 


Joseph E. Stiglitz, Project Syndicate 13 June 2018

2018-06-16

Karolina Ekholm: "Euron lyfter Sverige"

Statssekreterare Karolina Ekholm intervjuas av Per Lindvall Realtid 15 juni 2018.

Karolina Ekholm är professor i nationalekonomi. Hon var vice riksbankschef under åren 2009-2014.

Jag letar i min dator och finner där:

Karolina Ekholm skrev, tillsammans The Usual Suspects, inför folkomröstningen om Euron, en artikel under rubriken "Euron lyfter Sverige" som bör bli famös, 

att "nationella valutor med rörliga växelkurser fungerar som handelshinder. Därför är en gemensam valuta ett naturligt och nödvändigt steg för att realisera den gemensamma marknaden". 

Sådant kan man bli professor för i Sverige, tråkigt nog.


Man kan också efter denna lojalitetsförklaring till euron bli både vice riksbankschef och statssekreterare.

Kanske en svensk Deep State?

Full text 




2018-06-15

2,4tn euro - hur mycket är det ?

ECB to phase out €2.4tn bond-buying programme by year end

FT 14 June 2018

Hur mycket är det ?

1 tn = 1.000 miljarder.
2,4 tn = 2.400 miljarder.

Detta är euro. 1 euro = 10,15 SEK

Det blir 24.360 miljarder kr eller

24 360 000 000 kr, eller skall det vara tre nollor till ?

Det är väl väldigt mycket?

Jag har nog räknat fel.

https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biljon

2018-06-14

TIPS in a Rising Interest Rate Environment

Gobal systemically important financial institutionsm lost $800bn in market capital

Post-crisis, financial regulators decided to nominate a select few GSifis 

(global systemically important financial institutions). 


From the market top on January 26 until May 31, they lost $800bn in market capital, or about 18 per cent.


John Authers FT 14 June 2018



Fed höjde räntan med 0,25 % till 2 procent. Marknaderna skälvde.

För tio år sedan höll världsekonomin på att implodera efter det att Lehman Brothers gick i konkurs.

Sedan dess har världens centralbanker hållit räntan runt noll procent.

Nu måste de höja räntan igen för att skuldsättningen inte skall skena vidare.

Men debatten rasar om huruvida detta är för tidigt. Många är osäkra på om världens ekonomi tål högre räntor utan att implodera igen.

Så illa är det.

We do live in interesting times.


“The problem with QE is that it works in practice, but it doesn’t work in theory,” said former Fed chairman Ben Bernanke.

Monetarists and "creditists" disagree profoundly over the mechanism. 

Which of the two is right will determine whether the world muddles through or crashes into recession in 2019.

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard Telegraph 13 June 2018



The global bond rout has begun, leaving equities on borrowed time

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, 10 JANUARY 2018

2018-06-11

A Euro Tragedy - a clear mistake, a triumph of a political ideal of European unity over basic economics.


As the /book/ title indicates, this is not a pros versus cons assessment. Instead the author treats the Euro as a clear mistake, a triumph of a political ideal of European unity over basic economics.

The author provides a clear (and accessible for non-economists) account of how the idea of the Euro began to dominate the political discourse of particularly the French elite 

and how Germany leaders agreed on the condition that they determined the design

Simon Wren-Lewis 2 June 2018

Moderaterna inför EU-valet: "Vi är i grunden positiva till en gemensam valuta"

Moderaterna och EMU


Svenskt militärt bistånd till Baltikum

Hans Lindblad, om att vi främst kan erbjuda tillgång till svenskt luft-, sjö- och landterritorium.

SvD 2 maj 2018

2018-06-10

Mr Edwards’ “Ice Age” thesis

first honed in the late 1990s that markets in the West were about to follow the example set by Japan

bond yields heading to zero and a collapse in equity values after the Japanese bubble burst at the end of the 1980s. 

FT 9 June 2018

2018-06-09

$2.34tn of treasuries will be sold in the next two years.


The main, obsessive focus for debate around the Fed right now is whether it will raise policy rates three or four times this year.
But if Urjit Patel, the governor of India’s central bank, is correct, this obsession with US interest rates misses the point.

So, in the time-honored tradition of lenders everywhere, we extend and pretend.

 But with our ability to pretend almost gone, we’re heading to the Great Reset.


John Mauldin 8 June 2018

2018-06-08

David Stockman´s Conspiracy Theory

The Great Disrupter is fixing to do his thing at the G-7 meeting, and his impending rebuke to the keepers of the G-7 "consensus" could not be more welcome. That's because these so-called globalist multilateral institutions are the real enemy of democracy, capitalist prosperity and human liberty in the world today.
The G-7, the G-20, NATO, the IMF, the World Bank, the WTO ( World Trade Organization) and the rest are the vehicles through which the permanent political class rules and ruins the world.
That is, elected presidents, prime ministers and parliamentarians come and go. But mostly they get led around by the nose by the bureaucrats and apparatchiks who run their governments, populate their think tanks, NGOs and lobbies and propagate their group-think through the likes of G-7. 

2018-06-06

The U.S. trade deficit shrank 2.1% in April to a seven-month low. But...

But the gap is still on track to widen in 2018 to the highest level in a decade.

MarketWatch 6 June 2018

Jens Weidmann vs. Mario Draghi

The head of Germany’s central bank Jens Weidmann, who is seen as a leading candidate to become the next president of the ECB, 

has taken aim at plans for creating new eurozone funds to help crisis-hit countries, urging governments to instead make greater efforts to put their finances in order.


ECB president Mario Draghi last month called explicitly for the eurozone to equip itself with “an additional fiscal instrument to maintain convergence during large shocks, without having to overburden monetary policy”.

FT 5 June 2018


2018-06-05

Hakelius EU har i drygt tjugo år målmedvetet valt en strategi som går ut på att stänga alla nödutgångar. Priset ska göras så högt att ingen vågar backa.

EU-fantaster applåderar Macrons imperiedrömmar, men de skulle bara öka bara de klyftor som öppnat sig mellan öst och väst, syd och nord. 

Problemet är att ingen verkar kunna formulera alternativ med politisk kraft.
Det enda som kommer är lite mildare varianter av Macronmodellen.

Italy turmoil shows banking ‘doom loop’ still a powerful force

2018-06-04

RBS Government’s stake is worth around £24bn, little more than half

RBS Government’s stake is worth around £24bn, 

little more than half the £45bn of public money used to keep the bank afloat


Jeremy Warner 12 May 2018



I am no populist. 
Yet when I think of the sums earned by those responsible for dumping this mess on to the UK taxpayer, even my blood boils.

Martin Wolf, Financial Times March 5 2009


Merkel Teaches Macron the Art of the Possible

This is a minimalist agenda but, unlike Macron’s, it’s detailed and actionable. 

It’s also largely in line with the European Commission’s ideas. 


This effectively reduces Macron’s grand economic union visions to the most politically harmless, and cheapest, measures. 

Leonid Bershidsky Bloomberg 4 June 2018


The reason the Italian political crisis caused so much angst was the ill health of Europe’s banks

bloated and over-levered. 

John Authers FT 2 June 2018

2018-06-03

It was the unconditional pro-Europeanism of Italy’s past leaders that gave rise to the current nationalist backlash.

If you are really pro-euro, my advice is to stop treating the euro as an article of faith but fight for its sustainability. 

Wolfgang Münchau FT 3 June 2018


I wanted to keep Greece in the eurozone sustainably and was clashing with Germany’s leaders in favor of the debt restructuring that would make this possible.
 
By crushing our Europeanist government in the summer of 2015, Germany sowed the seeds of today’s bitter harvest: 
a majority in Italy’s parliament that dreams of exiting the euro.


Yanis Varoufakis Project Syndicate 29 May 2018




2018-06-02

The Italian Trigger

Germans and French are better off than the Italians compared to 17 years earlier. 

Germany, joined by the Dutch, Finns, and Austrians, runs a monster $1 trillion plus trade surplus with the rest of Europe and the eurozone.

John Mauldin 1 June 2018


The Blueprint for a deep and genuine Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)

published in November 2012, sets out the Commission's vision for future euro area integration. 

Click


FT Editorial: Too little has been done to fix the underlying problems of the single currency

Since the eurozone crisis began receding in 2012, too little has been done to fix the underlying problems of the single currency.

A fragmented banking system, inadequate crisis rescue capacity and a lack of fiscal flexibility to offset asymmetric shocks.

FT Editorial 1 June 2018


"helicopter money" - Italy’s new finance minister Professor Giovanni Tria

is an advocate of full-blown fiscal reflation and printed money to rescue Europe’s high-debt states, 

putting him on an inevitable collision course with Brussels and Germany’s policy elites.

Ambrose Evans-Pritchard Telegraph 1 June 2018

2018-06-01

Italy no longer has a lender of last resort standing behind its sovereign debt Ambrose

and therefore has no backstop defence for its commercial banking system.

The European Central Bank is progressively removing its shield as quantitative easing is wound down and purchases of Italian bonds fall to zero. 

There will be no protection by the end of the year. The Draghi pledge to do “whatever it takes” no longer holds.

No future rescue by the ECB is possible unless the Italian government of the day – endorsed by parliament – formally invokes the bail-out mechanisms (OMT-ESM) and accepts austerity imposed by Brussels.



Italy - the eurozone’s third-largest economy - is weak and shackled to a monetary union whose impact is substantially malign. Plender

 The rise of the populist politics represented by the anti-establishment Five Star Movement and the far-right League is an all-too-comprehensible consequence of gross economic mismanagement both within Italy and in a very imperfect monetary union.

Within the monetary union, Italy cannot address this competitiveness issue through devaluation. 

The only remedy is internal devaluation via wage deflation.

Yet despite unemployment of 11 per cent and youth unemployment at a devastating 35 per cent, unit labour costs have not come anywhere near to delivering that internal devaluation.

In reality, the level of unemployment that would be required to restore competitiveness might well be unthinkable.





2018-05-31

ECB has bought €341bn in Italian bonds

Mario Draghi, head of the Bank of Italy before his ECB appointment

FT 31 May 2018


2018-05-29

OMT, Italy and ELA

Outright Monetary Transactions
Under OMT, the ECB would make large-scale purchases of Italian debt, bringing yields down and ensuring the government can fund itself.

There is a catch: The country must apply for it, and must also go to the European Stability Mechanism, the euro area’s bailout fund. 

And an ESM rescue comes with conditions requiring economic reforms

It looks like the debt crisis days of 2012 all over again

Italian, Portuguese and Greek bond yields surged and billionaire George Soros warned of an “existential threat” to the European Union.


https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2018-05-29/it-feels-like-2012-again-as-european-markets-shudder-over-italy

Att ta ett jättekliv på väg mot politisk enhet och mer centralstyrning därför att marknaderna kräver det och bankerna behöver det,
mot flertalet medborgares vilja, är att bädda för nya och ännu större problem

Alltför mycket makt och befogenheter kan inte samlas i Bryssel utan att medborgarna får möjlighet att påverka politikens inriktning. 
Och eftersom demokratin fortfarande fungerar bäst på nationell nivå måste krisgeneralerna gå försiktigt fram
Annika Ström Melin, Signerat DN 29 juni 2012